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Understanding Option Premiums for Income

Option Premiums

The premium is the price paid or received for an option. Options are traded much like stocks, with bid and ask prices shown:

  • Seller generally receives the bid price
  • Buyer generally pays the asked price

 

  • Market maker makes or specialist keeps the spread between the bid and ask prices.

An example: A stock is trading at $40, and the October Call prices are quoted as follows:

BID = $1.70 ASK = $1.80

This means the high bidder will pay $1.70 and the lowest price offered to the buyer is $1.80. Note the $0.10 spread between the two prices. Actually, the only time the seller can be assured of getting the bid price, or the buyer only the asked price, is to enter a trade order as a market order, at which they get the market price at the time the order is executed. Market makers have to execute a market order at market price, up to the number of contracts for which the bid or offer is good, but are not obligated to take limit orders. By using the limit order, the seller might get the $1.75 or $1.80 for writing the call. And the buyer can enter a limit order for less than $1.80 such as $1.70 in an attempt to buy the call at a cheaper price.

Historically, the premium referred to the total amount received for selling the contract, not to the option price. Today the term “premium” simply means the options price on a per share basis. That is, the premium shown is bid at $1.70 that means $1.70 per share; you would expect to receive $170 ($1.70 X 100) for an entire option contract related to 100 shares. The premium can be all intrinsic value, all time value or contain both.

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Get the book on Amazon – Passive Income Monthly Plan: Create 60 Paychecks in 90 DaysLearn to create 60 paychecks per month in passive income. It’s simple – get started with $5 to build unlimited income. One of the truly passive income opportunities for monthly income – month after month!

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Understanding Option Exercise and Assignment

Exercise and Assignment

When a stock option is exercised, the call holder buys the stock, and the put holder sells the stock. When options are exercised, the OCC decides to which brokerage firm the exercise will be assigned, and the brokerage in turn decides which customer will get the assignment. When we are assigned an exercise and are required to sell our shares, the shares sold are said to have been called out or called away. Assignment occurs, then the shares are called out. Assignment on a short puts means purchasing the stock.

Assignment is completely random, and an exercise can be assigned to and appointed among several different call writers. Once assignment by OCC occurs, settlement between the buying and selling parties is automatic. Shares must be physically delivered once exercise occurs. The covered call writer doesn’t have to do anything; the call writer’s broker handles settlement, delivers the shares and collects the exercise funds. Option exercise or assignment can be partial: one can exercise less than all options held. Conversely, you may be assigned on less than all of your short calls or puts. However, one cannot exercise or be assigned on part of a single option contract. If you buy a call (put), you are not required to buy (sell) the underlying stock: you may sell the option to close or allow it to expire worthless.

Automatic Exercise

The OCC automatically exercises options that are $0.01 or more ITM, unless the option holder has notified their broker not to allow exercise of the option. Note that a stock’s price can tick up or down after the close on expiration Friday, resulting in calls or puts (but not both calls and puts) that were near the money at Friday’s close becoming in the money – and being exercised.

If you are long calls on expiration Friday, you could find yourself purchasing shares unexpectedly, due to a late-day or after market tick up in the stock. Or if instead long the puts, then, you might find yourself selling shares unexpectedly: and if you don’t own the underlying shares, this would either create a short stock position in your account, or your broker would buy you in (purchase the shares on your behalf) in order to cover itself. Be sure your broker knows your intention if you are long options at expiration and have nor closed them. Writers of short calls and puts can similarly find themselves assigned an exercise due to the same mechanism.

Early Exercise

Because stock options are American-style, you can be assigned as exercise any time an option is in the money, although options typically are not exercised early while there is still time value remaining. The reason is that the exercise of an option forfeits its time value; to capture the time value it is necessary to flip (sell) the option. But as expiration draws near, options that are in the money sometimes trade at parity, and this is when early exercise occurs. Options trading below parity practically beg arbitrageurs to exercise them for risk-less profit.

Where Stock Options Go

Option traders say that only 10% of options are exercised, which is generally true but not in all cases. Thus if you write a call, the odds against assignment are roughly 9:1, statistically speaking. But if a call is written ITM, the odds are quite high it will be exercised, despite the overall 9:1 odds. No matter where written originally, if the calls are in the money $0.01 or more at expiration, exercise is a virtual certainty. ATM and OTM options are never exercised, since it is cheaper to buy or sell stock in the open market than to exercise an option.

You have probably heard option seller’s state they are right 90% of the trades. This is due to only 10% or so being assigned. There is more to this story as we continue this journey.

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Get the book on Amazon – Passive Income Monthly Plan: Create 60 Paychecks in 90 DaysLearn to create 60 paychecks per month in passive income. It’s simple – get started with $5 to build unlimited income. One of the truly passive income opportunities for monthly income – month after month!

Join the Monthly Income Newsletter voted the best value for option income trading

Try Robin Hood to get FREE stocks 

Create a Passive Income Machine for Endless Income

How to Earn a Potential 134% Return with a 16% Dividend Yield

We strive to create monthly income by investing with several strategies. One long-term play for our monthly dividend stock portfolio is Center Coast Brookfield MLP & Energy Infrastructure Fund (CEN). While the energy sector has been soft in the past year, this has brought the energy stock prices down with it. This stock has a great monthly dividend with some significant price upside too.

This CEF trades around $7.80, which is close to the NAV. The big win is you get a 16% dividend with monthly distributions. This means you get all of your capital back in 4.5 years and still own the stock. According to Yahoo Finance, analyst have a 12-month price target of $17 on this stock. This is an increase of 118% on price alone. Therefore, your total return is projected to be 117% plus 16% dividend that equals 134%!

You should not fear the talk of return of capital. A distribution received from the Fund’s investments in MLPs generally are comprised of income and return of capital. The Fund’s dividend distribution policy is intended to provide monthly distributions to its common shareholders at a rate that over time is similar to the distribution rate the Fund receives from the MLPs in which it invests, without offset for the expenses of the Fund.

The Fund seeks a high level of total return with an emphasis on distributions to shareholders through investing in MLPs and energy infrastructure companies. Under normal market conditions, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its Managed Assets in securities of MLPs and energy infrastructure companies. The Fund may invest up to 20% of its Managed Assets in unregistered or restricted securities, including securities issued by private companies. The Fund may invest up to 10% of its Managed Assets in securities of issuers located outside of North America.

Regardless of the recent market swings, our outlook for the asset class remains favorable. To start, the corporate and financing maturation process that has contributed to sector-specific price volatility over the last several quarters appears to be largely behind us. Since the beginning of 2018 there have been over 15 simplification transactions resulting in generally healthier, lower risk companies in the sector, lower financial leverage, better distribution coverage, self-funding of capital expenditure and improved governance. This leaves us with less than 10% of the current market cap in structures with legacy corporate structures. In addition, public equity issuance is expected to significantly decrease, due to the transition to self-funding business models, reducing sector reliance on external equity capital markets. Sector fundamentals also remain robust as the energy industry set new records for production and transportation of U.S. hydrocarbons in 2018. The U.S. grew crude oil production by almost 20% in 2018 and is now the largest oil-producing country in the world—recently surpassing both Russia and Saudi Arabia—with output at 11.7 million barrels per day (MMb/d). Natural gas production is also at an all-time high after growing approximately 15% in 2018. Moreover, exports of U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids (NGLs) hit record levels in 2018 and together grew by approximately 40% in 2018. We expect exports of U.S. hydrocarbons to continue to grow and expect that new projects will further add to our nation’s export capacity. One study estimates there will be almost $800 billion of new energy infrastructure investment through 2035 – with much of it expected to be centered around export activity on the U.S. Gulf Coast. Our optimism is somewhat blunted by geopolitical risks globally, and in particular, the worsening trade relationship between the U.S. and China.

At Get Rich Investments, this is the type of opportunities we want to create long-term passive income. I am a buyer here and you should consider adding this one to your income portfolio. We always have a diversified group of monthly dividend stocks to minimize market risk.

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